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Date(s) - 06/17/2016 - 06/19/2016
All Day

Tularosa Community Center

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Here is the Schedule of papers for the 4. Tularosa Basin Conference. We have a good variety of interesting presentations starting 4pm on Friday, June 17. and a full day of presentations Saturday, with tours planned for Sunday.
Click on the link for the registration form: JRI 2016 Conference Registration Form

Fourth Tularosa Basin Conference Presentation Schedule

Friday, June 17, 2016

4:00 PM — Demographic Change at Los Ojitos, a Late 19th and early 20th Century Homestead Community on the Pecos River, Guadalupe County. Jeffery R. Hanson, Ph.D., Jornada Research Institute, Tularosa, and Kelly Lee Jenks, Ph.D., New Mexico State University, Las Cruces
Abstract: Los Ojitos (LA98907) was founded in the late 1860s as homestead laws opened new lands along the Pecos River. It was abandoned around 1940, as a result of construction of Alamogordo (Sumner Lake) Dam. A predominantly farming and ranching community, Los Ojitos exhibited steady growth in population from 1870 to 1900. There was a significant uptick of the population from 1900-1910, and then a precipitous crash by 1920. This presentation addresses the possible social factors that contributed to the growth and decline of the population, including rail line construction, the Spanish Influenza pandemic of 1918, and the drought of 1916-1918.

4:30 PM — Possible Causes for Late Archaic Population Growth and Archaeological Implications. David V. Legare, Organ Mountains – Desert Peaks and Trackways National Monuments Archaeologist, Las Cruces District Office, Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces
Abstract: Archaeological literature generally discusses the increase in the numbers and locations of archaeological sites during the Late Archaic in terms of population growth during that period. That growth in population is believed to be the result of the increase in available food due to agriculture.  Increased food reliability stemming from agriculture required behavioral changes that could more fully explain the growth in population during this period.  This paper explores one possibility that can explain increases in population that is linked to the mechanisms involved in basic agricultural practice. This work draws on the author’s ethnological and ethno-archaeological work in a modern Pueblo as well as bio-anthropological work associated with the southwestern populations during three periods of prehistory.  The question that follows relates to the identification of sites that may fit the proposed model.

5:00 PM — Historic Survey in the Fast Lane. Peter L. Eidenbach, New Mexico State University, Alamogordo
Abstract: Our national highways are long overdue for an overhaul. Eisenhower’s National System of Interstate and Defense Highways was authorized in 1956, completely transforming our roads and roadsides. Much of their roadside infrastructure is now more than 50 years old but has been largely overlooked by historic survey. Now that those Highways are more than 50 years old, implementation of the 2015 FAST Act will require extensive survey of roadside infrastructure. The three most common types of roadside architecture include tourist courts, gas stations, and restaurants, especially diners. These historic properties occur in two overlapping groups: those along the earlier U.S. Highways and those built to serve the new Interstate Highways. Two previous papers summarize the three property types and evaluate their representation on the National Register. Listings of examples prior to the 1950’s are infrequent although all three property types are probably common throughout the nation. Types and style typologies are also rare, although several will be directly applicable to properties in New Mexico. A review of the three property types and their temporal characteristics will help establish methods for identifying historic tourist courts, filling stations, and diners in New Mexico.

5:30 PM — In the Beginning, There was Chaos: The Spanish Reconfiguration of the A’tz-em/Piro Pueblo of Tzelaqui/Sevilleta in Historical and Archaeological Context. Michael Bletzer, Ph.D., Jornada Research Institute
Abstract: Sometime in 1627/28, the custodio of New Mexico’s Franciscan missionaries, fray Alonso de Benavides set about the resettlement of a Piro pueblo called Tzelaqui (variously also Tzelocu or Selocu), which had been burnt and abandoned in a conflict with unidentified native naciones. Benavides used the opportunity to establish a mission (dedicated to San Luis Obispo), resettle the displaced residents in the pueblo (now named Sevilleta), and also to bring in people from other, unspecified pueblos. Benavides felt his efforts had created uno de los mejores pueblos in New Mexico, but the record of Sevilleta’s early years is confusing. By the early 1640s, for instance, the mission was no longer permanently staffed, but visited sporadically by friars from the mission at nearby Pilabó/Socorro Pueblo.
Recent archaeological and archival research attests to the confusion not only of Tzelaqui/Sevilleta’s early days as a mission pueblo, but also its jumbled occupation history up to its final destruction in the winter of 1681/82. Preliminary survey and excavation results reveal a long misidentification of the pueblo’s structural components, including the mission complex established in Benavides’s days. Among other things, they also indicate a more complicated distribution of Spanish structures around the pueblo, including a room block built possibly for the “outsiders” brought in from surrounding pueblos during the pueblo’s reconfiguration in 1627/28.

6:00 PM — Contradictions In History: Who Chose The 1886 Geronimo Surrender Site At Cañon De Los Embudos? Deni J. Seymour, Ph. D., Jornada Research Institute
Abstract: Geronimo is one of America’s greatest historical icons, and best known Apache leader among the general populace event today. Having organized a band of warriors who fled their reservation at San Carlos, the military leader engaged in numerous negotiations and eventually accepted terms offered by General Crook. This paper examines the final surrender negotiations and looks at the strategies that both sides may have purposefully employed. Accounts from both Geronimo and from John G. Bourke, Captain Third Cavalry are examined.

Saturday, June 18, 2016

9:00 AM — The Remarkable Endemism of Moths at White Sands National Monument. Eric H. Metzler, Smithsonian Institution and Michigan State University
Abstract: Of the 25 million year history of the Tularosa basin, the gypsum dunes geologic structure, known as white sands, is only ≈8,000 years old. Most biologists think evolution requires millions of years. My data show that almost 40 species of moths, ≈ 4% of the identified species from the gypsum dunes, evolved in the last 8,000 years. Moths account for ≈ 8.5% of all eukaryotes (plants and animals), the higher organisms, on earth.  Moths are critically important in the environment, especially as nutrition for other small animals and insectivores. The great fecundity of insects, long known to entomologists and geneticists, permits high mutation rates. Prior to my research on moths in the Monument, which began in 2007, nobody knew there were endemic moths inhabiting White Sands National Monument. The seemingly barren structure is home to at least 1,000 species of moths, and almost 4% of them live no other place on earth: therefore they are endemic to the white sands gypsum dunes.

9:30 AM — The Tularosa Basin and Bataan. Michael Bilbo, Bureau of Land Management, Roswell Field Office, Roswell
Abstract: The Bataan Death March – one of the most horrific experiences for a number of our young American soldiers at the start of World War II.  It has much to do with the Tularosa Basin because we remember what happened each March with a walking 26.2-mile marathon at White Sands Missile Range.  And just before they deployed to the Philippines, the very same men memorialized by the annual event, trained for eight months at Fort Bliss.  So, through a powerpoint presentation let’s take a look at this interesting past and current history regarding the 200th Coast Artillery, New Mexico National Guard, and how Bataan relates to the Tularosa.

10:00 AM — Eve Ball: Old Woman with Many Stories. Janie Bell Furman, Tularosa Basin Historical Society, Alamogordo
Abstract: Eve Ball was a retired educator, but a kind of archaeologist in her own right. She dug with patience and perseverance through layers of distrust passed from generation to generation and uncovered heretofore untold treasures from the Mescalero Apache Reservation. Eve was never intimidated by the characters of the Wild West, as she collected their stories, as well. Through her work, Eve did much to erase misunderstandings about all Indians. The Apaches from several bands were her concentrated area of interest due to their proximity. The Apaches, in turn, learned not all people believed them to be savages.  Eve became a trusted friend. It will be my pleasure to honor Eve, and not just for her excellent stories but for her humanity and concern for the Apaches, who were forced to accept a lifestyle never imagined by their free-roaming ancestors.

10:30-11:00 AM – Break
11:00 AM — Crossing the Jornada del Muerto: Hydrological and Geomorphological Controls on Traveling El Camino Real Historic Trail. Trevor Kludt, Ph.D., David Love, Ph.D., Talon Newton, Ph.D., and Ethan Mamer, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro
Abstract: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro was used for more than 300 years. Water was an important consideration for travelers and their livestock. In historic accounts of traveling across the Jornada, group size and composition varies considerably. Based on estimates of daily water requirements for people and different types of livestock, daily water requirements range from approximately 135 gallons per day for the small groups to 23,000 gallons per day for the largest groups. Three primary sources of water were identified, including the perennial spring Ojo del Muerto in McRae Canyon, the cluster of playas near Engle, and intermittent seeps in Aleman and Yost Draws. Ojo del Muerto spring was the key to travel across the Jornada, near the half-way point along the route. The spring is reliable and produces a steady supply of good quality water. The playas also played an important role. When filled, they provided ample high-quality water for even the largest of caravans or herds. The seeps provide, at best, small amounts of water intermittently. They were probably viewed as an emergency supply. All three sources are a consequence of the underlying geology. Jornada Draw, the axial drainage, and a series of playas follow the Jornada Draw fault zone. West of this fault zone, bedrock is visible at the surface and ground water is shallow. East of the fault, alluvial deposits are much thicker and groundwater is more than 200 feet below the surface. The route of El Camino Real along the Jornada del Muerto crosses mostly dry, stable piedmont surfaces west of Jornada Draw and avoids the potentially muddy portions or soft alluvium of the drainages. The route was likely chosen as a direct line between water sources across nearly planar, hard-packed surfaces that could support large wagons.

11:30 AM — Excavation at High Rolls Cave, New Mexico. Philip Alldritt, University of New Mexico, Taos
Abstract: Between April 1 and July 24, 2001, the Office of Archaeological Studies (OAS), Museum of New Mexico, conducted data recovery at High Rolls Cave (LA 114103). The cave is located near Alamogordo, New Mexico and is across the canyon from Fresnal Rock Shelter, a previously known archaic period occupation in the canyon. OAS archaeologists conducted archaeological testing here in 1996 and 2000, revealing deposits from the middle and late Archaic periods—about 3,500 years ago. The excavations exposed deeply stratified materials, floors, diagnostic artifacts, and features radiocarbon dated to 1500 BC to AD 250. This period is contemporary with Fresnal Shelter, a landmark Archaic-phase rock shelter 300 m due north. High Rolls Cave is placed advantageously at the conjunction of four ecozones: the desert environment of the Tularosa Basin, the piñon-juniper woodlands, the montane ponderosa-fir slopes of the upper Sacramento Mountains, and the riparian environment of Fresnal Creek. It gave access to numerous montane resources, as well as the diverse plant communities along the margins of the Tularosa Basin, the riparian zone of Fresnal Creek, and the warm slopes of the tributary canyons. The results of this excavation will be discussed and the implications of the findings will be overviewed. The cave produced very early corn, amaranth, and tobacco.

12:00 – 1:30 PM — Lunch

1:30 PM — The Jaguar Made Beautiful: A Large Jaguar and Related Petroglyphs at Three Rivers Petroglyph Site. Joan E. Price, M.F.A., Jornada Research Institute
Abstract: This presentation documents an important locality at Three Rivers Petroglyph Site featuring a large jaguar stone identified by Kay Sutherland, Ph.D., with associated icons of Roman Pina Chan (1989), and several other related glyphs that enrich the iconographic context of this jaguar, including a remarkable anthropomorphic figure pierced by a “dagger” of light that may have served as a ritual timing event. Sutherland, a cultural anthropologist, identified several petroglyphic images in the Jornada cultural landscape that traced back into prehistoric Mesoamerican origins. She was among a number of researchers including Theodore Frisbie (1986) and George Kubler (1967) who consider clusters of images to be meaningful. Furthermore, several experts identify these glyphs to be in the Mimbres style. The implications of the Mimbres design style and cultural context is discussed.

2:00 PM — Rock Art, Ethnicity and Cultural Affiliation: A Case Example from Hueco Tanks. David Carmichael, Ph.D., University of Texas at El Paso
Abstract: It is always challenging to interpret the meaning of rock art, especially in the absence of a living tradition to provide detailed cultural content. Even when such traditional knowledge is available, it is possible to reach questionable conclusions when traditional insights are ignored, or when inferences are based on general resemblances rather than specific cultural content. In the context of modern historic preservation laws and policies, the attribution of cultural affiliation based on the interpretation of rock art can have real consequences for land use management. This paper examines the proposed determinations of cultural affiliation of Native American groups to Hueco Tanks State Historic Park in the context of land use planning and consultation. Ethnographic data about specific design elements at several rock art localities are considered for their ability to identify both Mescalero Apache and Ysleta del Sur (Tigua) use of the park.

2:30 PM — Sandcliffe Burial Assessment, Santa Teresa, New Mexico. Emily Davis, University of Texas at El Paso
Abstract: This paper is centered upon a set of human remains excavated at the Sandcliffe site in Santa Teresa, New Mexico. Included in this presentation is a brief section that addresses the ethical concerns of the population affected by this study, a description of the excavation of the remains, and a full physical assessment (including sex determination, age determination, stature determination, dentition, and pathology). In addition, comparisons with other regional studies were made in order to determine possible cultural links, investigate any possible novelties with regard to the Sandcliffe burial, and most importantly, contribute to the available regional data for use in future studies.

3:00 -3:30 PM — Break

3:30 PM — An Introduction to Jornada Mogollon Agricultural Practices in the Southern Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Alexander Kurota, Office of Contract Archeology, University of New Mexico
Abstract: Recent archaeological re-evaluations of sites at White Sands Missile Range have produced noteworthy discoveries of masonry farming features. These findings launch a new epoch in our understanding of agricultural practices by the Jornada Mogollon people. Our research indicates that experienced farmers in the Jornada Mogollon region utilized natural swales as farm fields and constructed agricultural field complexes using check dams, grid gardens, and cobble mulch piles. In addition, simple field houses and pit structures were found to be associated with these farming features. Evidence suggests that these agricultural techniques were either adapted from the Mimbres Mogollon region by Jornada Mogollon farmers or brought to the Tularosa Basin by Mimbres Mogollon immigrants.

4:00 PM — Geoarchaeology of Sites in Southern White Sands Missile Range. Kate Zeigler, Zeigler Geologic Consulting, LLC., and Alex Kurota, Office of Contract Archeology, University of New Mexico
Abstract: A broad cluster of over 47 sites in the southern portion of White Sands Missile Range affords an opportunity to continue a multidisciplinary effort to refine understanding of the origin of lithic artifacts in the southern Tularosa Basin. Most of the sites are affiliated with Archaic and Jornada Mogollon occupations. Careful in-field identification of the lithology of lithic artifacts is combined with observations of local geology to identify potential sources of raw material and examine the distribution of rock/mineral types throughout the project area. The dominant material type can be predicted in some cases based on geographic position of a site. Combining geologic and archaeological data allows testing of hypotheses regarding natural versus anthropogenic movement of lithic materials across the southern Tularosa Basin. The majority of the lithic materials utilized were obtained from local sources. Rare items, such as turquoise and obsidian, shed light on lithic artifact manufacturing and potential trade/travel paths through the Basin.

4:30 PM — Ongoing Research at Creekside Village: Addressing Early Village Organization in the Tularosa Basin. David H. Greenwald, Jornada Research Institute, Tularosa
Abstract: Investigations at Creekside Village along the Rio Tularosa have identified the presence of a large, circular pit structure with attributes that compare with great kivas or community structures found elsewhere in the Southwest. Creekside Village, a Mid-to-Late Mesilla Phase pit house village, is centrally located between the confluence of the North and South Forks and the mouth of the Rio Tularosa. As such, it served as a central place or primary village to a dispersed community located along the Rio Tularosa. The setting provided direct access to the Rio Tularosa floodplain and adjacent Pleistocene terraces where a variety of wild economic resources could be gathered. Alignments of ditches indicate that residents likely used the perennial water of the Rio Tularosa and developed water collection systems from the adjacent uplands to water fields and provide domestic supplies. Additionally, investigations indicate the presence of a probable reservoir and an associated ditch, an enhanced artisan spring, other springs, and recognition of 65 pit house depressions (more are anticipated). Initial paleobotanical studies suggest a heavy dependence on agriculture, with a focus on corn/maize. The great kiva and other community features (reservoir and irrigation system) reflect a highly structured social order tied to subsistence needs. Discoveries at Creekside Village have far ranging implications into existing concepts of the organizational strategies of Jornada Mogollon groups who occupied the Tularosa Basin during the Formative period. And, the presence of the kiva suggests similar beliefs and expressions found among other groups across the Southwest who used great kivas during this same period. Investigations completed to date will be described with future research directions outlined.

5:00 PM — Prehistoric Water Resource Adaptations in the American Southwest: Case Studies from Tularosa, New Mexico and Safford, Arizona. James A. Neely, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin
Abstract: The water resources and characteristics of two prehistoric canal systems, which are separated from one another by about 225 miles and about 500 years, are briefly described and discussed.  In the process, adaptations to the arid environmental characteristics of the areas are evaluated and the ingenuity and resourcefulness of the ancient engineers that conceived of, planned, and completed these canal systems are considered.

JRI 2016 Conf_Schedule of Papers_Abstracts

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